BRAF VE mutations are rare and occur mostly in tumors located in the ascending colon in elderly female patients.
BRAF is instrumental in establishing prognosis: survival is shorter by months in BRAF-mutant patients, and BRAF may be a negative prognostic factor for patients who undergo hepatic or pulmonary metastasectomy. Moreover, this mutation is used as a negative predictive factor for anti-EGFR therapies.
Two new biomarkers have recently been added to the metastatic colorectal cancer panel: HER2 and microsatellite instability. While HER2 is still being investigated in different prospective studies in order to validate its prognostic role, microsatellite instability already guides clinical decisions in substituted with advanced colorectal cancer.
Conclusions There are current evidences that support using above mentioned genetic biomarkers to better identify the right medicine that is supposed to be used in the right patient.
This approach contributes to a more individualized patient-oriented treatment in daily clinical practice.